In a study that evaluates the knowledge that is part of the process of child literacy in children of different social classes and its impact on the learning of literacy, children from sectors at socio-environmental risk are detected differ from their peers in all dimensions linguistics considered (writing functionality, writing system and oral language). The differences found will be related to the level of literacy of the family and social environment. However, linguistic stimulation programs, elaborated and systematically implemented essays, such as those aimed at developing phonological awareness skills, can compensate for the phonological differences affected to children in socially vulnerable sectors, learning to read at the same time as their peers.
In another study (Dickinson & Tabors 2002) in children of low socio-economic level, were detected that literary activities developed at home, such as story reading and verbal interactions have immediate and lasting effects on the process of acquiring the reading. In the same sense, other research shows that frequent reading of stories by teachers and parents to children in charge significantly increases their level of vocabulary and basic reading skills stories such as the identification of written words (Porta & Difabio 2011; Roberts 2008).
Literature occupies an indisputable place in the formation of children in basic general education, which is why it must affect pedagogical fact that contributes to the fulfillment of the curriculum. With the development of workshops aimed at parents to promote the reading of stories at home and encourage from the pre-school stage the formation of an active and critical reader, a reader who, in more advanced stages of the school, able to understand and Interpret the read.
It is an essential condition enjoy the shared space between readers and listeners. Establishing a routine is another important requirement to create the habit of reading. Agreeing a moment of the day for reading, a space and the way in which reading will develop will awaken in the child the need to read everyday and that will identify this occasion as a space to share, enjoy and learn.
To keep the listener’s attention, it is essential to narrate the story in a dramatic way, ask questions, allow the child to ask them, ask him to guess the end of the story, talk about the drawings that appear in the text. When you read with interest, it presented with a model that also leads to think that the stories are interesting.
Repeating oral reading increases familiarity with each narrative core and helps establish deeper comments. By reading that way the child becomes familiar with the music that contains the story.
To clarify the meaning of unknown words or of meaning wrong, situations motivated in some cases by their infrequency in the daily use, refer to the following sequence. First, the meaning of the word is explained using an accessible language for the child, requesting that it be repeated in order to promote the phonological representation of the word. In this instance you can also evoke synonyms. Second, define the word in the context of the story. Third, the word is explained with examples whose contexts are different from the one described in the story. Fourth, the word is enunciated in the context of other sentences by way of example and the child is asked to make a judgment or opinion as to the correct or incorrect use of the word in the context of that sentence.
Make gestures and identify the illustrations that accompany the text while reading, it increase understanding without interrupting the flow of the narrative.
Naming, asking and enrich answers. Talk with the children about the personality and problems of the characters and about the way they solve the different situations. Establish connections between what happened in the history and circumstances of the child’s daily life. For example, in relationships with friends, habits, feelings, behaviors, observations, or while playing with toys, you can remember the story shared before. An interesting activity is to invent different endings for the same story.
Playing with the sounds of words helps children learn to read. From a cognitive perspective, reading is conceived as a skill that involves several perceptual, cognitive and linguistic processes and resources. However, the biggest weight factor is the set of phonological processing skills. Phonological awareness is an auditory ability that consists of intentionally listening, identifying and manipulating the sounds of spoken language.
Knowledge of the name of the letter is considered the second central predictor of the reading level and therefore is another important factor to have when developing literary activities at home. Adams, Foorman, Lundgerb and Beeler (2003) argue that phonological awareness training is essential to achieve effective reading and that, if the instruction is aimed at establishing connections between the word segments and the letters that represent those segments, The results are even better.